Palm Oil

Statistic Vegetable Oil & Palm Oil Information

Global Vegetable Oil 2018-2021 (Million Tons)
Global Vegetable Oil 2021 (Million Tons)
Production Vegetable Oil by Country 2018-2021 (Million Tons)
Production Vegetable Oil by Country 2021 (Million Tons)
Global Palm Oil Production 2018-2021 (thousand Tons)
Global Palm Oil Production 2021 (Thousand Tons)
Global Oil Palm Plantation Size 2018-2021 ( (Thousand Ha)
Global Oil Palm Plantation Size 2021 ( (Thousand Ha)

Oil Palm Male and Female Inflorescence’s

Palm Oil Tree produces functionally unisexual male and female inflorescences in an alternating cycle on the same plant. Some of palm oil tree have single-sex male and female plants exist (abnormal).

A mature palm will alternate between male and female inflorescence production during its lifetime; however, the proportion of time spent in each phase will vary considerably depending on both environmental and genetic factors.

The sex ratio is normally defined as the ratio of female to total inflorescences in a given group of palms. In regions with high and regular rainfall (e.g. Malaysia and Indonesia), oil palm sex ratios tend to consistent throughout the year, in contrast to areas experiencing a marked dry season such as in West Africa, where the sex ratio undergoes extensive fluctuations.

The period of lowest sex ratio (high male inflorescence production) occurs during the rainy season and speculated that this character is an adaptation against the reduction in airborne pollen density caused by high atmospheric humidity.

Female inflorescences – Credit to MPOB
Male Inflorescence’s – Credit to MPOB
Pollination Process

Oil Palm Tree Pollination

Oil palms are both wind and insect pollinated. Numerous species are involved in the pollination of oil palms, but the main pollinating agents are from weevils/beetle (Elaeidobius kamerunicus).

The oil palm industry is still early stage; these weevils were imported from Cameroon and introduced in the local plantation sector starting in 1981.

These weevils play an important role in the process of pollination of oil palm trees which previously had to be done by human labour. Weevils is introduce due to its robustness in long rainy seasons, host-specificity to oil palm, and high pollen-carrying capacity

Weevils are attracted by the strong fennel-like fragrance released by the male inflorescence at anthesis. Female inflorescences have the same aniseed scent as males, but weevils apparently visit them only by accident in the search for male inflorescences

In Africa, Elaeidobius spp. account for 99% of oil palm pollination, with Elaeidobius kamerunicus and E. plagiatus being the most efficient species.

The introduction of these weevils has stimulated the country’s oil palm production while saving costs. From 1982 to 2015, the savings were estimated at around USD 10 billion dollars.


1) Helene Adam: Environmental regulation of sex determination in oil palm: Current knowledge and insights from other species


3) Ntsomboh-Ntsefong Godswill, Youmbi Emmanuel, in Breeding Oilseed Crops for Sustainable Production, 2016

Palm oil vs Canola Oil vs Vegetable Oil

Palm Oil

Palm oil is, at its broadest definition, is vegetable oil, and more specifically a fruit oil. As such, like all vegetable oils, it has no cholesterol. (This is present only in oils from animal origin.) Moreover, palm oil has a rather unique chemical profile in that it possesses a near-equal balance of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Unlike other tropical oils, whose saturated fatty acids can comprise over 90% of the oil, palm oil has only 50% saturated fatty acids, and this level is balanced with 50% unsaturated fatty acids. Owing to this composition, clinical studies have shown that palm oil tends to be “net neutral” in terms of the effect on a person’s cholesterol levels.

Palm oil is a rich source of natural vitamin E, both tocopherols and tocotrienols, having very potent antioxidant properties. In fact, among the commercially available refined vegetable oils, palm oil has the highest content of natural Vitamin E tocotrienols. People start aware of the dangers of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) – palm oil is TFA-free. With palm oil’s unique natural semi-solid composition, fractionation during processing results in a liquid component (palm olein) and a more solid component (palm stearin). With some other oils, TFAs are formed during hydrogenation, a process that basically converts naturally liquid oil into a solid state.

Canola Oil

Canola oil is derived from rapeseed, a flowering plant, and contains a good amount of monounsaturated fats and a decent amount of polyunsaturated fats. Rapeseed is naturally high in potentially toxic compounds like erucic acid, which made it unsafe to consume until recently. In the 1970s, scientists in Canada crossbred a version of the crop to have lower amounts of erucic acid. This strain was dubbed canola—a portmanteau of Canada, oil, and low acid.

Of all vegetable oils, canola oil tends to have the least amount of saturated fats. It has a high smoke point, which means it can be helpful for high-heat cooking. Canola oil tends to be highly processed, which means fewer nutrients overall. “Cold-pressed” or unprocessed canola oil is available, but it can be difficult to find. Canola oil contains Trans-fat that 1.8 g per 100g.

Vegetable Oil

The term “vegetable oil” is used to refer to any oil that comes from plant sources, and the healthfulness of a vegetable oil depends on its source and what it’s used for. Most vegetable oils on the market are a blend of canola, corn, soybean, safflower, palm and sunflower oils. Vegetable oils are refined and processed, which means they not only lack flavor, but also nutrients.  It’s called ‘vegetable’ so that the manufacturers can substitute whatever commodity oil they want—soy, corn, cottonseed, canola—without having to print a new label.


Debczak, M. (2022, April 21). Canola oil vs. vegetable oil: What’s the difference? Mental Floss. Retrieved May 10, 2022, from

Palm Oil: The world’s Best edible oil? Malaysian Palm Oil Council. (2012, May 30). Retrieved May 10, 2022, from