Biodiesel is the fuel produced from extracting oil from animal fats, plants or waste. Scientifically, biodiesel is called fatty acid methyl esters.Some of the sources of biodiesel include rapeseed, soya beans, and corn. Since some of these are also sources of food, there is a Fuel vs Food debate on biodiesel production from food sources. Therefore, a lot of research is being done on producing biodiesel from inedible sources. Some examples include sandbox seeds and cotton seeds.
Biodiesel is produced through esterification process of oil extracted from the seeds. Firstly, the seeds are cleaned and dried. Then, oil is extracted from the seeds via processes such as soxhlet extraction or by mixing the oil with sulfur dioxide. The oil extracted is then refined and esterified by a reaction between the oil and alcohol as the base. A catalyst can be used to enhance the reaction. The time and temperature depend on the type of alcohol and oil used. Once the reaction completes, the alcohol is evaporated using rotary evaporation.
The use of biodiesel is important as it comes from natural renewable resources. It also helps reduce carbon footprint where the carbon footprint emitted is countered by planting sources like sandbox seeds and cotton seeds for further production. Biodiesel is an important technology which can significantly help overcome the problem of fossil fuel and natural gas depletion. Therefore, more research is to be done to prepare biodiesel on large scales to overcome the depletion.
Azolla, also known as mosquito fern, is a form of aquatic plant that resembles duckweed or mosses. In addition to being one of the fastest-growing plants, it also does not need land to grow on. This is due to its ability to self-produce nitrogen, which other plants tend to obtain from the soil they grow on. This process is known as nitrogen fixation.
Legumes have a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium, a similar nitrogen-fixing eubacterium, also provides nitrogen directly from the atmosphere but the relationship between these two organisms need to be renewed each generation. On the other hand, Azolla is capable of directly transmitting its cyanobacteria to the next generation during its reproductive cycle. Azolla and its cyanobacteria have evolved together over millions of years, making them a superorganism which can fix nitrogen three times more than legumes and its cyanobacteria.
Azolla is cultivated as a biofertilizer in paddy fields. It provides nitrogen to the surrounding paddy field through nitrogen fixation. Currently, Azolla is used in paddy fields of tropical temperatures. However, research is needed to use the fern in high altitude paddy fields. Also, the algae should be resistant to the pesticides and herbicides that are commonly used in the paddy fields.
Apart from being used as a biofertilizer, Azolla is also being cultivated for livestock feed. It is rich in various vitamins, minerals, proteins and amino acids, thus a balanced food for livestock. There is also the potential of this plant to be used as a biofuel.
Carbon dioxide is essential to plants as oxygen is essential to humans and animals. Humans and animals inhale oxygen produced by plants and exhale carbon dioxide that is used by plants to support photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a process carried out by plants in order to prepare ‘food’ with the presence of sunlight, chlorophyll and carbon dioxide.
An efficient photosynthesis rate is needed for the plants to be able to grow to their full potential. Naturally, plants need 0.1 to 1.0 % volume of carbon dioxide to reach their optimal photosynthesis rate. However, the surrounding air contains only 0.03 % of carbon dioxide that is available for photosynthesis. Therefore, plants are unable to reach their maximum growth due to the lack of carbon dioxide. This results in smaller plants, leaves and fruits.
In order to ensure optimum growth, carbon dioxide has to be supplied to the plants. In the 1920s, carbon dioxide gas was supplied directly to the plants. Pipes were built along with the plants. Carbon dioxide gas would be slowly released from the pipes to be absorbed by the plants. However, the situation was difficult to control as there is the runoff of the carbon dioxide into the environment.
In current days, fertilizer in the form of calcium carbonate is available to the consumers. This type of fertilizer is usually a slow release. Once applied, the granules slowly release carbon dioxide over a long period of time, just enough for the plants’ stomata to absorb some carbon dioxide to assist photosynthesis, and avoid wastage and environmental poisoning. The extra source of carbon dioxide enables plants to produce a higher yield of fruits and also larger and healthier fruits.
The most important mechanical quality of fertilizer is the ability to spread evenly, precise application, a low impact on the environment and promising a high return on investment. The first look of fertilizer can actually indicate the quality of the granules. Dust-like and crushed granules indicate fertilizer with low quality. On the other hand, granules that are smooth and inhomogeneous size indicate high quality and ability to spread evenly.
Taking into importance the well-being of the environment, fertilizers should be free of additives. Another important effect of fertilizer is the release of carbon footprint. Carbon footprint is the amount of carbon dioxide released into the environment by a certain activity, which in this case is agriculture. This leads to an increase in global temperature. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the fertilizer emits carbon footprint at its lowest both during production and application.
Next quality is the high return in investment. The fertilizer applied should be able to return the investment in fertilizing during harvesting. Some fertilizer types require more fertilizing with more quantity and more frequency. This type of fertilizer brings a lesser return on investment. Fertilizer that needs to be applied lesser times, but with the same harvest, promises a higher return of investment.
In short, a good quality fertilizer should have the following:
- Free-flowing (easily applied)
- Consistent in particle size with smooth and hard granules
- Easily spread – ensuring even distribution patterns
- Quickly dissolve when in contact with moist soil or water (avoid run-off)
- Free from contaminants and additives
Fertilizers are one of the largest costs when it comes to oil palm plantations. Up to 85% of agricultural expenditures are spent on fertilizers. As such, fertilizers should not be wasted and should be used conservatively.
The best way to make sure that wastage is minimized is to ensure that fertilizers are correctly applied. Fertilizers like Ulexite (which provides Boron) should be applied at the correct time and place. This will benefit your soil and crops, as well as help, keep your expenditure in check.
Here are the best times to apply Ulexite fertilizers:
- After you have weeded your plantation
Weeds are very common in oil palm plantations and are often carried by the wind. There’s no easy way to deal with weeds as they have to be removed manually. You cannot use herbicide as this will endanger the oil palms.
Therefore, weeding has to be done by manually removing the weeds. Make sure you apply your fertilizers after a fresh round of weeding. This is because weeds can leach away the Boron in your fertilizer and use it to grow rapidly.
- Avoid overly rainy seasons
In any case, you should avoid applying fertilizers during the wettest time of the year, which usually occurs from November to January each year. This is because the excess rain is able to wash away Boron into the deeper parts of the soil, away from the roots.
- Dry seasons are not good either
Too much rain will cause the Boron fertilizers to leach away, but applying them during extremely dry and hot seasons isn’t practical either. This is because there isn’t enough rain to dissolve the Ulexite. Furthermore, the heat can cause the fertilizer pellets to dry out into dust and be blown away by the wind.
The driest months in the year for Malaysia are June and July, with less than 10 days of rain.
- Months with moderate rain are the best
The best months to apply fertilizers would definitely be the months that are not too hot or rainy. These moderate months are usually from February to March, and September to October each year.
Moderate rainfall months can optimize the effect of Ulexite fertilizers, as they avoid the environmental extremes that can reduce efficiency. Ulexite or boron fertilizers need time to be absorbed, so it’s best to start applying these fertilizers as early as possible in the optimal season.
- The best time of the day
The best time of the day to apply Ulexite is in the morning, before the sun gets too hot and there’s a lot of wind. Applying fertilizers evenly in the morning reduces the chances of it evaporating and being lost to the elements. It would be even better if you water them a little to protect them and ensure maximum absorption.
In order not to miss the optimal months of the year, you’ll have to make sure you prepare all the necessary equipment, machinery and fertilizers beforehand. Check out our new Granular Ulexite fertilizers, available at 10% and 15% concentration.
Contrary to the famous believe that weeds disrupt the growth of farms, Studies have shown that weeds actually help to make farms more productive. The study proved that having certain types of weeds around the farm help reduce crop losses.
The study shows that due to the ecological niches, the excessive growth of a more invasive species of unwanted plants is inhibited by these weeds. This proves that a certain level of biodiversity is positive for the ecosystem, both natural and man-made.
Some examples of beneficial weeds include white clover and dandelions. Some legumes can help in nitrogen fixation when paired with the correct bacteria. For example, white clover, when paired with Rhizobium bacteria, often add nitrogen to the soil through nitrogen fixation process. This can help farmers reduce the amount of fertilizer that needs to be applied to the soil.
Some weeds have strong widespread roots. These roots introduce nutrients and organic matter to the soil by turning the clay into a more dense and richer soil. Other than that, some weeds become the support for some soft rooted plants. For example, tomatoes can cling on to weeds to allow their weak roots to go deeper into the soil.
This finding and approach can result in excellently if applied on a wide scale. The need for fertilizers and pesticides can be reduced. This would benefit both the farmers and consumers. Farmers tend to save money on fertilizers, while consumers have a chance of enjoying better and healthier food without the usage of pesticides.
Fertilizers are a vital component of sustainable crop production. Fertilizers assist in increasing the production of crops and while ensuring that the crops are healthy. If nutrients provided to the plants are inadequate, the fertility is mined from the soil, and thus, the crop will not be able to attain its optimal yield. On the other hand, if too much nutrient is provided without managing the risks, there is a high possibility that the excess fertilizer will move away from the plants and in result, affect the environment.
The 4Rs guide is an approach to utilize fertilizer optimally. This practice is good for the grower, farming community, and also the environment. The 4Rs stand for:
- Right Source
- Right Rate
- Right Time
- Right Place
The 4Rs are explained in a more detailed manner as below.
Before applying fertilizer, ensure first that the type of fertilizer applied is of the correct source (i.e. Potassium fertilizer, Nitrogen fertilizer, etc.) you would want to apply the correct type of fertilizer for optimal growth of your plant. Ensure that there is a balanced source of nutrients in the fertilizer, based on the plants.
Assess the soil nutrient content in which your plants are planted in before applying any fertilizer. Some soil has a higher nutrient content than others, while some have a significantly low amount of nutrients. Therefore, the soil nutrient level needs to be checked to avoid over-fertilizing or under-fertilizing.
Assess your crop intake dynamics, soil supply, nutrient loss, and logistics before applying fertilizer. You should know how long it takes for your crops to take up the fertilizer. Recognize also the weather factors before fertilizing. Too much rain will result in fertilizer runoff while no rainfall will retard the absorption of fertilizer by the crop roots.
Before applying fertilizer, you should know the dynamics of the roots. You should know where the roots are located and if it is easy for the roots to intake the fertilizer from where you have applied it. Applying fertilizer too far from the roots will only result in wastage as the fertilizer will run off with rain before it can be absorbed by the roots.
E-commerce in this day and age isn’t just limited to buying clothes or groceries online. You can basically find everything you need online, and have it delivered to your doorstep.
It’s no different for things like agricultural equipment and fertilizers. There are stores offer these things online nowadays so you don’t have to travel yourself and pick them up.
The purchasing process on these online supplier sites is also very quick and efficient. You don’t have to go through the time-consuming steps of getting quotations, issuing P.O.s or dealing with invoices anymore.
Just go online, state how many units you want and just pay through online bank transfers or credit cards. It’s so fast and easy. Here are some of the sites where you can find fertilizers for sale, especially ground Borate Fertilizers or Ulexite:
AliBaba mostly carries Ulexite Borate and Boron fertilizers from China. However, the availability largely depends on the manufacturers on the site. However, you will be able to see all the Borate fertilizers or pure Ulexite powder suppliers by typing in these search terms into the search bar above.
Most suppliers require you to buy a minimum amount in order for them to justify the shipping fees. So usually you won’t be able to buy one or two packs at one time and this is the only downside.
Lazada does carry some forms of Boron, such as Borax and not specifically Ulexite. However, the amount of Borax or Borate fertilizers you can buy on Lazada is pretty small. They are sold in packs or bottles of 1kg or less and are meant for gardeners and domestic use, rather than plantation owners.
Additionally, they are also sold as part of a mixed fertilizer formula rather than straight fertilizer.
3. Ubuy Malaysia
Ubuy has many lifestyle products, and here you can find sometimes find Borate and Boron as part of complex fertilizers designed for farming and cash crops. Most of the products at Ubuy are imported from the US and other foreign countries so you can be assured of the best quality products for your plants in the long run. If you’re here, you’ll want to use the keyword ‘fertilizer’ to begin your search.
Amazon carries Boron and Borate fertilizers from all over the world, and you can definitely find one in stock. Otherwise, there are plenty of micronutrient fertilizer mixtures you can also try. The only thing is that buying online from Amazon might be a tad bit more costly since all the prices are in USD.
For the time being Everchem does not do any direct retail trading towards the customers as most of our business is mainly on wholesale. However, should you require further information on the type of products that we carry feel free to drop an email to us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ulexite is a source of Boron that’s commonly used in the chemical industry. Apart from being the main component of Boron fertilizers, Ulexite is also used in glazing, bleaching agents, glass production, flares and much more.
Ulexite is usually not a mineral that is found alone. Instead, it is usually found in combination with other forms of Boron, such as Colemanite, Tincal, and Kernite. The appearance of Ulexite is usually different from these other forms of Boron.
The mineral form of Ulexite usually takes on the appearance of a crystal mass that’s either clear or slightly cloudy. It can also appear as parallel fibers in certain instances.
Where is Ulexite mined in the world?
The mining of Ulexite, together with other Boron deposits, are regulated by the laws of each country. Thus far, Ulexite has been found mainly in Arid regions of countries like the U.S.A., Argentina, Chile, Russia, Peru, Serbia, Bolivia, and China.
Each year, the Boron mines around the world produce about 250,000 tons of Boron, which is equivalent to about 800,000 tons of Boron Oxide.
Ulexite is primarily found in Nevada and California in the U.S., as well as in the Tarapaca region of Chile and in Kazakhstan. Additionally, it is also mined in the Emet, Bigadiç and Kırka regions of Turkey where there’s a huge deposit of Boron.
The companies mining Ulexite usually mine other Boron minerals together with Ulexit and turn them into commercially viable products. Therefore companies usually do not mine Ulexite alone as Ulexite is found with other Boron minerals. As many as 230 different Boron minerals exist in nature, but only less than 10 are commonly found in Boron deposits and are mined commercially.
Ulexite is a Natural Borate Product
The minerals that come from Boron mines can be processed into many different products. However, Ulexite does not need to undergo any more processing. It is usually taken straight from the mines and the rock deposits are cleaned off using a machine.
Larger deposits of Ulexite are cut into more manageable sizes before they are put through a grinder to be ground into a powder. Different companies provide ground Ulexite powder of different sizes.
For a standard agricultural application, Ulexite is usually ground to 2-4mm in size. This is considered the standard size.
Ulexite can also be ground into a finer powder less than 50 μm in diameter. When ground, Ulexite resembles a grayish white powder that is about 35% Boron Oxide (B2O3) and about 20% Calcium Oxide ( CaO).
The Future of Ulexite
Ulexite is, unfortunately, a mineral that is not renewable. This means that once all the Ulexite in the world has been mined, we cannot produce more. The countries with the highest Boron reserves right now are Turkey and Russia.
It is therefore important for Ulexite and Boron mineral producing countries to consider recycling Boron from various wastes in order to produce a viable Boron source for the industries that need it, including the agricultural industry.
Fertile soil means a plot of soil which is able to grow crops. Soil fertility can be classified as high, moderate and low fertility. Highly fertile lands are the best to grow crops, especially food sources to feed the nation, while less fertile of barren lands appear desert-like or with fewer plants.
There are a few countries in the world that are considered the most arable. Being arable means that these countries have some of the most fertile lands in the world. Ten of the most fertile countries include Bangladesh, Denmark, the Ukraine, Moldova, India, Hungary, Rwanda, Comoros, Togo and Gambia.
There are a few types of soil that are considered highly fertile. Each type of soil consists of different types of nutrients that contribute to the growth and health of crops. Some types of soil are as follows:
Alfisols – Nearly 10% of the world’s ice-free land.
This type of soil is found in Western Europe and parts of North and South America, Africa, India, and Australia. It is a clay-based and relatively fertile with high aluminum and iron content soil.
Andisols – 1% of the world’s ice-free soil.
Andisols are found mostly in New Zealand, Northwest USA, Chile, Kenya, Indonesia, and Japan. This type of soil is formed from volcanic ash and highly fertile and ideal for crops.
Mollisols – 7% of the world’s ice-free land.
Found in Ukraine, parts of Russia and the USA, mollisols are some of the world’s most fertile soil. This type of soil includes black soils with high organic content.
Vertisols – 2.5% of the world’s ice-free land.
This type of soil is found in India, Australia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. With irrigation they support cereal, cotton, sorghum, and rice growing.